Susa or Shushan in the Bible (in Elamite: Šušan) is an ancient city of the Elamite civilization, which became in the 5th century BC. J-C the winter capital city of the Achaemenes Persian Empire, located in the south-west of present-day Iran about 140 km east of the Tigris River. The small Iranian city of Shush which is nearby, has taken its continuity. Susa was founded around 4000 BC. J-C on a crossing point that connects the Tiger Valley to the Iranian plateau. The city is mentioned in the Bible. It is one of the oldest cities in the region; it was occupied until the fourteenth century, a period of more than 5000 years. It is therefore a very important city to capture the history of the Middle East during these millennia. The most important part of the ancient Susa is an area of about one hundred hectares divided into three parts, which overlooks a small river, the Shaour. The first is the Apadana, named after the great palace that first Darius built here, on the ruins of Elamite buildings.
The second is the Acropolis, the highest part of the site, on which stood an Achaemenes fort, which is actually the first inhabited area of the city, and its center in the Elamite era. Below is the Royal City, a residential area. This great ensemble is the one that was populated first, at the end of the fifth millennium. This is where the Elamite Susa was. It was surrounded by a glaze which served as a defense system (there were no walls). The city then extended eastward to later periods, in the "city of artisans", where the city was in the Islamic era. The two sets were separated by a ditch, and by the waters of Shaour which had been diverted. At Susa we are on the land of the beginning of civilization, Susa is one of the first cities of humanity, inhabited since the 4th millennium BC. Susa is the capital of Elam until 500 BC then important city under the Achaemenes.
The building is located between two courtyards and its exterior facade is decorated with tiles and has two minarets 10 meters on both sides that have been added to the mausoleum 1291 (Solar Hijra). The interior is decorated with mirror machining, stucco and marble stones and in the center.